Pabrik dalam Kebun ala Indmira solusi Pengolahan Limbah Kelapa Sawit

31 Desember 2015 - Uncategorized

www.otonomidaerah.org, 2012

Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit

Sejak tahun 2006, Indonesia tercatat sebagai negara produsen sawit terbesar di dunia. Total produksi sawit Indonesia menyumbang sekitar 45% dari produksi sawit dunia. Luas areal perkebunan kelapa sawit di Indonesia terus meningkat beberapa tahun terakhir. Berdasarkan buku statistik komoditas kelapa sawit terbitan Ditjen Perkebunan, pada tahun 2014 luas areal kelapa sawit mencapai 10,9 juta ha dengan produksi 29,3 juta ton CPO.

Tingginya produksi kelapa sawit tentu berperan penting dalam ekspor CPO. Namun dibalik keuntungan ekonomi tersebut, pengolahan sawit masih menyisakan masalah limbah berupa tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS).

Menurut data di web site BUMN PT Perkebunan Nusantara V, jumlah pabrik industri pengolahan kelapa sawit di Indonesia sejumlah 608 buah dengan total kapasitas produksi 34.280 ton TBS/jam. Setiap pengolahan 1 ton TBS (Tandan Buah Segar) dihasilkan TKKS sebanyak 22 – 23% TKKS. Jika jam kerja pabrik 2 jam/hari, dihasilkan TKKS sekitar 13.712 ton/hari. Dan jika hari kerja setahun sebanyak 260 hari, maka total TKKS yang dihasilkan mencapai 3,5 juta ton/tahun. Jumlah yang sangat banyak dan tentu akan mencemari lingkungan jika tidak dikelola dengan baik.

Selama ini TKSS belum dimanfaatkan secara maksimal. Pemanfaatan umumnya untuk membuat kompos, padahal pembuatan kompos perlu waktu yang cukup lama. Pengomposan tanpa starter membutuhkan waktu 6 bulan-1 tahun karena lebih dari 60% >TKKS mengandung selulosa. Sedangkan dengan starter waktu yang dibutuhkan bervariasi antara 1 sampai 2 bulan. Waktu pengomposan yang cukup lama tentu memerlukan tempat yang cukup luas. Jumlah tumpukan TKKS yang banyak, kadang menyebabkan fermentasi anaerob yang menghasilkan gas metana. Gas ini menjadi salah satu gas yang berperan dalam perusakan lapisan ozon.

Indmira sebagai perusahaan berbasis riset melakukan penelitian tentang pengolahan limbah TKKS menjadi hasil yang lebih bermanfaat dalam waktu yang relatif cepat dan ramah lingkungan. Konsep yang dikembangkan Indmira untuk upaya pengelolaan limbah ini diberi nama “Pabrik dalam Kebun”. Konsep ini merupakan pembuatan pabrik pengolahan limbah TKKS di dalam kebun sawit. Tujuannya tentu untuk mengurangi kerusakan lingkungan dan biaya tambahan akibat pengangkutan material TKKS ke tempat pengolahan (carbon footprint).

Sejak tahun 2013 Indmira mengembangkan alat untuk mengolah TKKS dengan prinsip pirolisis. Pirolisis merupakan suatu proses dekomposisi kimia bahan organik melalui proses pemanasan tanpa atau sedikit oksigen atau reagen lainnya, di mana material mentah akan mengalami pemecahan struktur kimia menjadi fase gas. Pirolisis cukup ramah lingkungan dengan hasil akhir pengolahan TKKS berupa bio arang yang kaya akan kalium (mengandung sekitar 30% K2O) dan gas cair.

Kalium sebagai salah satu unsur makro yang dibutuhkan tanaman, berperan membantu proses fotosintesis, mengefisiensi penggunaan air, menguatkan batang, membuat biji tanaman menjadi lebih berisi dan padat, meningkatkan kualitas buah karena bentuk, kadar, dan warna yang lebih baik, serta meningkatkan ketahanan terhadap penyakit. Pemanfaatan kalium dari hasil pengolahan limbah TKKS tentu menghemat penggunaan pupuk kalium yang selama ini diimpor.

Bio arang ini juga sangat berperan dalam mencegah pelepasan karbon di tanah. Terlebih untuk pertanian monokultur seperti kelapa sawit, laju pelepasan karbon cukup tinggi. Selain bio arang, gas cair yang dihasilkan dari pirolisis bisa dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pengawet alami atau pestisida alami.

Alat pirolisis yang dikembangkan Indmira dilengkapi dengan tungku albakos, penampung tar, kondensor, vacum, dan pengatur oksigen. Pemanasan mengguanakan briket, dan hanya diawal saja diberikan sehingga hemat karena bisa dipakai seterusnya. Saat ini pengembangan alat masih dalam skala prototipe dengan kapasitas pengolahan 20kg TKKS/hari. Ðari jumlah tersebut bisa menghasilkan bio arang sekitar 20-25% dan asap cair sekitar 4 liter. Hasil yang cukup memuaskan dengan penggunaan bahan bakar yang relatif hemat.

Rencana pada tahun 2016 alat ini sudah siap di lapangan dengan kapasitas 200ton TKKS/hari dan semoga ada perusahaan kelapa sawit yang siap bermitra dengan Indmira. Jika ini terwujud, “pabrik dalam kebun” ala Indmira bisa menjadi salah satu solusi pengolahan limbah ”emas hijau” Indonesia, kelapa sawit. Semoga! (Le)

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